Supplements for Issue 65 "Architecture On Screen and Off."

Here is a list of notes and supplements for pieces published in this issue, in the order content was published in the journal.


  1. This is a revised and expanded version of an essay published on-line in tandem with Sondra Perry’s exhibition flesh out at the Squeaky Wheel Film & Media Art Center (January 20~April 1, 2017).
  2. Eartha Kitt, “I Want to be Evil,” YouTube video, 3:02 minutes, posted by mrfnk on Nov.16, 2008, included in video for Sondra Perry’s moving image installation Resident Evil (2016), accessed 11 February 2017.
  3. “Robot Suicide? Rogue Roomba Switches Self On, Climbs Onto Hotplate, Burns Up,” Huffington Post, November 13, 2013, updated on January 23, 2014,
  4. Lorna Roth, “Looking at Shirley, the Ultimate Norm: Colour Balance, Image Technologies, and Cognitive Equity,” Canadian Journal of Communication vol. 34, no. 1 (2009), 111-136.
  5. See Anna Katz, catalog entry for Kerry James Marshall: Mastry, ed. Helen Molesworth, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (Skira Rizzoli, 2016), 150-1. “[The three women] dangle as ‘accessories’ to the crime, the implication being that the structural privileges of whiteness—including being a witness to, rather than a victim of, racial violence and the power to inflict such violence without the probability of persecution—are not unlike heirlooms of jewelry that pass along matrilineal lines from mothers to daughters,” 150.
  6. “Watch Video of Microsoft’s Bill Gates Awkwardly Celebrate Windows 95 Launch,” Huffington Post, December 2, 2015, updated on February 12, 2016.
  7. Elizabeth Alexander, “Can you be BLACK and Look at This?: Reading the Rodney King Video(s),” Public Culture 1994, no 7, 77-94. Alexander cites Hortense Spiller’s differentiation between “body” and “flesh” in “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book,” diacritics vol. 17, no. 2 (Summer 1987), 64-81. “If we think of the flesh as a primary narrative, then we mean its seared, dived, ripped-apartness, riveted to the ship’s hole, fallen, or ‘escaped’ overboard.” Spillers, 67.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Hito Steyerl, “In Free Fall: A Thought Experiment on Vertical Perspective” e-flux no. 24 (April 2011), re-printed in Perry’s Roomba zine; see also Hito Steyerl, “In Defense of the Poor Image,” e-flux no. 10 (Nov. 2009) 
  10. “We have long been digital, ‘compressed, reproduced, ripped, remixed,’ across time and space. For blackness, the meme could be a way of further figuring an existence that spills over the bounds of the body, a homecoming into our homelessness.” Aria Dean, “Poor Meme, Rich Meme,” Real Life, July 25, 2016, re-printed in Perry’s Roomba zine. See also Cedric Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).
  11. Jordan T. Camp and Christina Heatherton, eds., Policing the Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter, London: Verso Books, 2017. Especially in relation to the killings in Baltimore, Maryland, see the Fault Lines reporter Anjali Kamat’s contribution, “The Baltimore Uprising”: “This is how an entire community can be criminalized and could reveal in part why Freddie Gray was chased down, beaten, ‘folden up like a pretzel,’ and arrested outside the Gilmore Homes on that fateful morning of April 12, 2015, when all he had done was make eye contact with a police officer and then run as fast as he could.”
  12. Ethan Chiel, “New York City has been shining surveillance light on its black population for the last 300 years,” Fusion, May 19, 2016, See also Simone Browne, “Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness” (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 2015)
  13. Bertolt Brecht, “The Bruise-A Threepenny Film” in Brecht on Film and Radio, ed. and trans. by Marc Silberman, Brecht on Film & Radio, London: Bloomsbury, 2000, 142-3.
  1. Interview with Keiko Tsuno and the author, February 12, 2016. Unless otherwise noted, all further quotations from Tsuno are taken from this interview.
  2. Kevin Howley, Community Media: People, Places, and Communication Technologies, (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 144.
  3. Tsuno’s first complete video work, entitled Video Poem, was exhibited at The Kitchen (then at the Mercer Arts Center). This short film is both in need of restoration in its original half-inch open reel video tape format, as well as digital transfer. However a portion is viewable as a background image to the ending credits to the WNET/Thirteen program Video Tape Review or “VTR” airing 1975, which profiled DCTV’s activities up until that point, and interviewed Jon Alpert, Keiko Tsuno, and Yoko Maruyama.
  4. Unlike the majority of the couple’s output under the DCTV institutional authorship, which is distributed either by the organization itself, or the video and media art advocate Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI), Is This Music? is also in peril, with a single copy recently discovered in DCTV’s archives.
  5. While this essay focuses on the confluence of community video and video art in DCTV’s foundational years, the group is better known for their television documentaries critiquing the long arm of American empire. They were famously the first American television crew to be allowed into Cuba to produce a documentary since the 1959 revolution, creating Cuba: The People (1974) and selling it to PBS. Cuba was also the first ½” color video work to be broadcast on television. As Alpert recalls, “It was literally the first or second one off the assembly line” (Jon Alpert, quoted in J. Hoberman, “Jon Alpert’s Video Journalism: Talking to the People,” American Film: Magazine of the Film and Television Arts 6:8 [June 1981]: 54). The success of this project was followed by a number of other major broadcast projects at PBS with the support of WNET’s David Loxton, including Chinatown: Immigrants in America (1976), and Vietnam: Picking Up the Pieces (1977). On the latter of these projects, DCTV was the first U.S. TV crew admitted into Vietnam after the fall of Saigon. After working on contract projects at PBS, Alpert began producing independent projects for the NBC network’s Today series. However, Alpert’s long and productive NBC contract abruptly ended when his footage focusing on civilian casualties in Iraq during the first Gulf War led to the cancellation of the news program three hours prior to broadcast. Subsequent DCTV productions have been made with HBO for cable broadcast, such as Baghdad ER (2006) and China’s Unnatural Disaster: The Tears of Sichuan Province (2009).
  6. Erik Barnouw, Documentary: A History of the Non-fiction Film, 289.
  7. “Pioneer Of Community TV Celebrates 40 Years,” Around the Nation, NPR (New York, NY: December 2, 2012),
  8. Lyndon Stambler, “The Accidental Filmmaker,” Scene: News and views for the Colgate community (2010 Autumn), 38.
  9. “The Early Days of Video: A Conversation with Jon Alpert & Keiko Tsuno,” IFP: Independent Filmmaker Project, October 3, 2012,
  • Atari 2600 Video Computer System Field Service Manual 2600 / 2600A Domestic (M/N) FD100133, Rev. 02 (Sunnyvale, CA: Atari, Inc, 1983).
  • “The Electronic Visualization Laboratory, founded in 1973, was devoted to interdisciplinary work—specifically the exploration and development of computer imaging as it intersected with video art.”
    [The Electronic Visualization Laboratory website, (accessed February 4, 2014).]
  • “This work has more in common with some threads of avant-garde conversations in art film deriving from poetry and painting than it did with emerging video art growing from conceptual art, performance art and cultural theory. The work of Sandin and collaborators could occasionally be heard characterized as ‘video wallpaper,’ but its reach was already influential to other pioneering figures such as Nam June Paik and the Vasulkas.”
    [John Minkowsky, “Design/Electronic Arts: The Buffalo Conference, March 10-13, 1977,” in The Emergence of Video Processing Tools, volume 2, Kathy High, Sherry Miller Hocking and Mona Jimenez, eds. (Chicago: Intellect Books, 2014), 407-408.]
  • “This subjectivist dimension also found application in the kinds of transformations Sandin’s Image Processor could produce—both as an analog machine, and as an analog-digital hybrid (by the mid-1970s, Sandin and DeFanti employed a PDP-11 computer for precise control of its effect).”
    [Sheldon Brown, “Introduction,” in Synthesis: Processing and Collaboration (San Diego: The Gallery@Calit2: 2011), 5.]
  •  “Organized by Tom Weinberg, who was part of the TVTV video collective, [Nightwatch] initially drew from his connections with the local video community and work made at the Chicago Editing Center that provided access to video production tools.”
    [Sara Chapman, “Guerrilla Television in the Digital Age,” Journal of Film and Video Vol. 64, Nos. 1-2 (Spring/Summer 2012).]
  • “Many of the electronic oscillation patterns, transformations of the gamma range, isolation of object edges, and the use of signal noise to transform stable video signals are identified as technical failures in the repair handbooks made by RCA.”
    [John R. Meagher, RCA Television Pict-O-Guide: An Aid to TV Troubleshooting, Volume 1 (Harrison, NJ: Radio Corporation of America, Tube Department, 1949).]
  • “The formal design of these failures were explicitly noted in Iman Moradi’s 2004 discussion Glitch Aesthetics as a discrete collection of tendencies: fragmentation, replication/repetition, and linearity.”
    [Iman Moradi, “Glitch Aesthetics” (BA dissertation, School of Design Technology, Department of Architecture, The University of Huddersfield, January 27, 2004).]


  1. Colab included artists such as Kiki Smith, Jenny Holzer, Tom Otterness, Walter Robinson, James Nares, Peter Fend, John and Charlie Ahearn, and Scott and Beth B. For an overview of Colab, see Max Schumann (ed.) A Book About Colab (and Related Activities) (New York: Printed Matter, 2016); David Eugene Little, “Colab Takes a Piece, History Takes It Back: Collectivity and New York Alternative Spaces.” Art Journal, vol. 66, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 61-74; Alan W. Moore, ‘Punk Art: No Wave & Colab’, in Art Gangs: Protest and Counterculture in New York City (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 2011): 80-109. See also: https://collaborativeprojects.wordpress.com
  2. Recent Colab retrospectives include: The Times Square Show Revisited, Hunter College Art Galleries, curated by Shawna Cooper and Karli Wurzelbacher (September 14 – December 8, 2012); The Real Estate Show, a Colab exhibition originally held in 1980 in a squatted city-owned building on Delancey Street (and subsequently shuttered by the NYPD), was restaged in 2014 at four New York City galleries: James Fuentes Gallery, Cuchifritos, ABC No Rio, and The Lodge Gallery; A. More Store, a Colab retrospective exhibited in the summer of 2016 at Printed Matter in New York; Colab TV Video Excerpts, a program of excerpts from Colab TV shows compiled by Coleen Fitzgibbon and Andrea Callard, which screened at the Film-Makers Cooperative and the New Museum in 2013. A DVD containing highlights from Colab TV shows is currently available for purchase at:
  3. On Fitzgibbon’s individual film work, see “Coleen Fitzgibbon by P. Adams Sitney,” BOMB 123, Spring 2013. Available online at:
  4. For additional information on Communications Update, see: See also Bear’s overview of New York public access shows, including All Color News, in the 1983 article, “All Aboard! A Survey of Incentives and Impediments to Public Channel Usage by New York Artists and Fellow Travelers,” Liza Bear, The Independent: Film & Video Monthly (March 1983): 11-15.
  5. Colab member Alan Moore recalled Potato Wolf screening events being hosted at the popular downtown nightspot Mudd Club, and also in artists’ lofts. Moore regarded Potato Wolf video nights as part of a long-established tradition of independent film screenings: “We were producing with a new medium, but Potato Wolf functions came out of the tradition of artists’ loft screenings in the 1970s. They were parties essentially – we’d show the tapes, a band would play, and we’d all drink a lot of beer!” Alan Moore. Personal correspondence, April 8, 2013.
  6. Moore recalled an episode of Potato Wolf on which the artist Terry Mohre—a video and sound artist then working at the Buffalo Media Center—plugged an analogue synthesizer into the mixing board to manipulate the video image. As he explained: “Audio and image signals are interchangeable, so you can take the analogue audio signal and get an image out of it, and you can also do the reverse. Terry plugged the synth directly into the board and the staff just went crazy – they thought that their machinery was being destroyed!” Alan Moore. Personal correspondence, April 8, 2013.